A Perfectionist’s Guide to Editing: 4 Stages

by Jami Gold on March 3, 2011

in Writing Stuff

Red funnel

Yes, I’m still under deadline, but an interesting issue came up in the comments on my last post about perfectionism.  Perfectionists tend to be nitpicky, no surprise there.  But there’s a time when that trait is very helpful, and a time when we need to ignore the compulsion to tweak.  How do we tell the difference?

Others have written about how to revise or edit a story.  Those stages are great to understand.  Really great.  As in, I-wish-I-understood-them-a-couple-years-ago-and-saved-myself-a-lot-of-time great, but such is the learning curve.  Now I want to look at those stages and what they mean for perfectionists.

Prologue to the Revision Process: Finish the Story

Before we even start on the revision process, we need to finish the story.  Many people give advice to not edit previous chapters before finishing the draft of the whole thing.  Usually, the thinking goes like this: If we start editing before we’re finished, there’s a greater chance we’ll never finish the story and much of that editing time will be wasted further down the road.

I think that’s great advice.  Why spend time tweaking a paragraph that might be deleted once you start the real editing?  However, I *cough* don’t always follow this advice.  And yes, I’ve managed to finish multiple stories regardless because I’m stubborn that way.

My compromise is to re-read only the previous chapter or scene before I start my writing day.  I justify this “rule-breaking” by saying it helps me get back into the story’s voice, characters’ heads, etc.  During this pass, I try to change things only if they really irritate me.  Then I start drafting the new stuff.

The 4 Stages of Revision

Assuming we have a completed story (manuscript, screenplay, etc.), now we can move on to improving it.

Stage 1: Revising

Revising is very different from editing and the sooner we understand this, the better.  Revising means taking a look at the big picture.  In some ways, we’re starting from scratch by deciding what we want to accomplish with the story/scene/character arcs.

Think of it this way:  Revising = Redoing.  We might have to redo whole scenes, arcs, or character background.   This step is especially important if we’re pantsers and not plotters.

  • Is the story arc solid?
  • Does our story start in the right place?
  • Are all the scenes necessary?
  • Do the scenes have multiple reasons for being in the story (character development and plot point, etc.)?
  • Does each scene have an arc (emotional and story-wise)?
  • Do the scenes start and stop at the right points for that arc?
  • Is the Goal/Motivation/Conflict clear for every scene and character?
  • Do all the main and major secondary characters have arcs?
  • Are the characters’ motivations appropriate and deep enough?
  • Are the characters likable and sympathetic?
  • Is there tension on every page?
  • Is the pacing slow in any spots?

This is not the place to let our inner perfectionist out.  This stage involves cutting chunks of backstory, description, boring chit-chat dialogue, and paragraphs of throat-clearing at the beginnings of the story and scenes.

At this stage, we might “re-imagine” entire scenes to get the important plot point across in a different way.  We might move chunks of scenes around to strengthen an emotional arc.  We might change the setting, or even which characters appear in the scene.

Word choice does not matter here. What matters here is getting the structure of the story right.  Think form, not format.

Stage 2: Editing

Only after the structure of the story is solid do we narrow our focus to the words themselves.

  • Are our sentences and paragraphs clear?
  • Are the sentences tight without wordiness or being over-written?
  • Do we have a consistent tone and voice?
  • Is the point-of-view solid (no head-hopping)?
  • Do the characters’ motivations or emotions need to be fleshed out on the page?
  • Do we need to add or change things to make the characters more likable or sympathetic?
  • Do the writing and tone create the right reactions and emotions in the reader?
  • Is everything “shown” that should be shown and “told” that should be told?
  • Are there any places to add subtext or foreshadowing?
  • Is it too preachy?
  • Are there any places with too much/too little subtlety?
  • Is the reader able to “see” the story from our writing?
  • Is the dialogue realistic?
  • Do we say the same thing multiple ways or times?
  • Is the word count right for the target market?

Word choice and other nitpicky things do matter here if they affect clarity. This stage is about ensuring our story makes sense in the smaller picture.  This is the if-we-got-hit-by-a-bus-tomorrow-our-story-could-be-published-anyway stage.  It’s not perfect yet, but all the elements of story/plot/character are on the page.

Stage 3: Polishing

Now we can worry about word choice.  Yay!  (I don’t actually enjoy word choice nitpickiness, but at least I don’t have to tell that inner perfectionist to shut up anymore once I reach this stage.)  Our focus has narrowed to the point that we shouldn’t be changing anything bigger than paragraphs anymore.

  • Are the paragraph breaks in the right places for ideas to hang together?
  • Is the grammar clean?
  • Are transitions between scenes and settings smooth?
  • Are there unclear pronouns or dialogue attribution?
  • Are there unnecessary adjectives or adverbs?
  • Is every sentence, paragraph, and scene as tight as it can be?
  • Are dialogue attributions properly punctuated as beats or tags?
  • Do we misuse any homonyms (there/their/they’re, its/it’s, rain/reign/rein, etc.) or similar words (everyday vs. every day, awhile vs. a while, then vs. than, further vs. farther, etc.)?
  • Do we misuse any unfamiliar words (do we love our thesaurus too much)?
  • Do we overuse any words (do your characters nod or smile too much)?
  • Can we delete any filler words (that, only, just, very, still, etc.)?

Word choice does matter here. Now is the time to let that nitpicky perfectionist go to town on making every sentence as perfect as can be.

Stage 4: Tweaking

Hah.  Trick answer.  There is no Stage 4.  When we’ve finished the list above, we need to stop.

As I mentioned in my last post, the tweaking will never end because a word choice that sounds perfect today won’t seem quite right tomorrow.  That doesn’t mean the word is wrong.

After completing this process once, we’ve made the story as good as we can make it.  Now it’s time to bring in critique partners and beta readers.  Have them concentrate on some of the issues from the sections above.

Maybe you’ll have your beta readers focus on the Stage 1 stuff and your critique partners focus on Stages 2 and 3.  However you decide to tackle the project, you’ll probably do a second round through these stages as you address the issues they find.

Some people might think going through this process twice sounds like a lot.  And maybe they’re plotters who already know the purpose of each scene and the goal/motivation/conflict for each character.  Others might think only two times sounds like a big improvement over their current endless passes.

The point is that the better we know which stage we’re in, the less likely we’re going to waste time editing things that don’t matter.  I had to learn this the hard way, as my first a-bigger-number-than-I-want-to-admit passes were all Stage 3 level.  *ahem*  Learn from my mistake, and hopefully this will save you from that problem.

Once you’ve gone through the process twice, you should submit.  Does that mean it’s good enough for publication?  Not necessarily.  But it’s as good as you can make it at this point in your learning curve.  And you might learn something from the submission process that you can apply the next time around.

What do you think of this breakdown?  Does this help keep you focused on what to look for—and what not to look for—during your editing passes?  Can you think of other things that should be on those lists?  Do you disagree with this approach?

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66 Comments below - Time to Add your own.

Natasha Larry March 3, 2011 at 6:36 am

Great article!


Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 7:20 am

Hi Natasha,

Glad you enjoyed it. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Murphy March 3, 2011 at 7:31 am

Timely post for me. 🙂

As a writer I tend to agree with you, but as a non-perfectionist, I’d never think of the process this systematically. Geez Jami, you’re giving me one of those headaches again. 😉

So, what does that mean? I think it means that as a perfectionist you need to structure your revision process so there’s a clear end it. As a non-perfectionist? (you’re going to hate me saying this) I count on pure instinct to let me know when I’m done. Of course, even at this stage you’re really never be done because if your story is accepted – there’s bound to be revisions required – perfectionist or not.



Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 7:38 am

Hi Murphy,

You’re exactly right. This process isn’t about how to make our story perfect. (If we thought it was perfect, we wouldn’t have the right attitude for accepting changes from agents or editors!) This process is about how to make it as close to perfect as we can make it – given our current place on the learning curve and the quality of feedback we receive. 🙂

That’s why knowing when to call something done is so important to perfectionists, because it really comes down to: when is it good enough for us to move on. That “instinct” thing doesn’t work for me (Yet. I’m working on that.). 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Angela Scott March 3, 2011 at 7:43 am

I’ve heard it said that even books that are in print and on shelves still could be edited and revised more. But at some point we have to stop and say enough. We can go crazy with the editing process (believe me, my little perfectionist goes nuts sometimes and I have to pull her back).

I lvoed your post. Very good points and things to think about. I do tend to *cough* edit a little as I go for the same reason you mentioned above–to get back into the characters mindset. For me it helps.

I appreciate all the work that went into your post. New follower here 🙂


Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 7:54 am

Hi Angela,

Welcome! *waves* Yes, I’ve caught mistakes in published books before. I think in one of the Harry Potter books, I found a sentence with the wrong character name. That error made it through UK editing and US editing and was never caught to be fixed in the later print run I had. 🙂 That mistake didn’t seem to hurt that story too much. LOL! So we can’t beat ourselves up for not being perfect. Thanks for the comment!


Yves Brown McClain March 3, 2011 at 8:56 am

Wow…what a great post and good info I could use for my work. I tend to be a bit of a perfectionist and this helps when knowing when to pull back. Thanks again 🙂


Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 8:57 am

Hi Yves,

Happy to help. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Katrina March 3, 2011 at 9:19 am

So. Freaking. Helpful.

I’ve always hated the editing process because it seems so unstructured – mostly because I’ve never been taught how to approach it. When faced with a blank screen, I know how to fill in a scene. I can develop a character. But sitting back and looking at the thing as a whole and as a bunch of small parts? Terrifying.

This is a really useful way to approach that process. Thank you (as always).


Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 9:21 am

Hi Katrina,

Aww, you’re welcome. Hey, count on me to make all the mistakes so you don’t have to. LOL! Thanks for the comment!


BellaVidaLetty March 3, 2011 at 9:50 am

Great break down. I enjoyed reading this article.


Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 9:54 am

Hi Letty,

Happy to help. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Jessica Anne March 3, 2011 at 11:21 am

So helpful, as usual. I love having things broken down into stages. It really helps me focus. Bookmarking this. Thanks!


Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 11:22 am

Hi Jessica,

Yes, I like that kind of organization too. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Lisa Gail Green March 3, 2011 at 1:43 pm

Great breakdown! Very thorough. Though *grins* I tend to mix up certain stages.. He he he. I shouldn’t. But there you go. 😀


Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 1:47 pm

Hi Lisa,

Oh, believe me, I haven’t followed this either, but I knew my old method wasted tons of time. Hopefully having this breakdown will help me too. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Laura Pauling March 3, 2011 at 1:48 pm

I love it! Bookmarking it.


Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 2:03 pm

Hi Laura, Thanks! 🙂


Jill Kemerer March 3, 2011 at 2:57 pm

Oh Jami, your process is the same as mine, and I wish I could say my first attempts at revising were as thorough! It took me a lot of trial and error to come up with this process, but I’m so glad I did. Good luck!


Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 3:15 pm

Hi Jill,

Ha! This is the result of my trial and error. 🙂 And it took me way too long to figure this out. LOL! Thanks for the comment!


Adventures in Children's Publishing March 3, 2011 at 6:31 pm


Seriously, this is the best post I’ve ever seen on this topic. It’s fantastic. A true gift. I’m going to be sharing this with as many writers as I can blog and tweet to!



Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 6:38 pm

Hi Martina,

Wow, thank you! 🙂 I’m so happy this is helpful to people. Thank you so much for your comment and support!


Debra Brown March 3, 2011 at 7:48 pm

Hi, great article! I bookmarked it with the tag: Read This Again!
Thanks for sharing your understanding of this. Much appreciated.


Jami Gold March 3, 2011 at 7:55 pm

Hi Debra,

You’re quite welcome. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Gene Lempp March 4, 2011 at 3:55 am

Ditto to many of the comments above, excellent post, timely and love the bullet structure. I wish I could rely on instinct, but well, instinct always tells me there is more that can be improved. That nasty little perfectionist imp is an insistent friend/curse-of-existence 🙂
Bookmarking this post to save me in the future (by bashing the imp in the head with it). Thanks again!


Jami Gold March 4, 2011 at 6:18 am

Hi Gene,

No problem. 🙂 It was some of what you and Piper had commented about in the last post that inspired this one – so thank you! And thanks for the comment!


Kerry Meacham March 4, 2011 at 5:14 am

Wow Jami, awesome post. As you know I’m new to the novel community and per my last comment on your perfectionist post I am not a perfectionist. However, this list applies just as much to me as to perfectionists. While perfectionists can’t see the forest for the trees, sometimes I’m so far above the forest I can’t see the trees. This is an AMAZING structure for both sides of the fence to follow. It makes “you guys” look at the big picture, and it gives those of us that want to just “get ‘er done” a slow down mechanism so we don’t gloss over things that are very important to the story. Judging from the comments on this post, I’m not alone in thinking this is a really really, did I say really, great post. Thanks Jami.


Jami Gold March 4, 2011 at 6:19 am

Hi Kerry,

Aww, thank you. 🙂 You all are making me blush. LOL! I’m happy some of my trial-and-error pain can be put to good and helpful use. Thanks for the comment!


JANET TAYLOR March 4, 2011 at 6:41 am


this is a wonderful guide. I am going to keep it forever and use it when I get through with my #2- that I just started.

You’ve been SO much help, and I appreciate you very, very much!
Have a great day! 🙂


Jami Gold March 4, 2011 at 6:43 am

Hi Janet,

When I’m done with my deadline, I expect to hear all about your conference. 🙂 Good luck with book number 2 and thanks for the comment!


PW Creighton March 4, 2011 at 8:42 am

Very well said. When I completed my first MS I thought it was done aside from some edits. Until I wanted to change something to make the story stronger. Then it became a domino effect. In the end if I had taken it as stages I could have saved myself oodles of time (yes oodles). Great post from the cave.


Jami Gold March 4, 2011 at 8:45 am

Hi PW,

Yeah, I’m scarily lucid for someone who’s been operating on 4 hours of sleep a night for the past 2 weeks, aren’t I? LOL! I might sleep for 3 days straight after this is done. And I’m right there with you on the “oodles.” 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Tahlia Newland March 4, 2011 at 5:49 pm

Thanks. Hhat a great post. You’ve got it all girl. Hit the nails on the head. Helps me to see that I’m definitely tweeking – still? Again!


Jami Gold March 4, 2011 at 5:51 pm

Hi Tahlia,

Believe me, I know the feeling. I’ll be beating myself in the head with this post whenever I catch myself tweaking. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


CMStewart March 4, 2011 at 10:47 pm

Looks like you nailed the editing process here, thank you for yet another great post. Gonna try this. I just need to remember to skip stage 4, I tend to forget to remember to . . OK I’m hitting SUBMIT now. lol


Jami Gold March 4, 2011 at 10:48 pm

Hi CM,

LOL! Yep, that’s my weakness too. Thanks for the comment!


Charles Warren March 8, 2011 at 7:17 pm

Thanks for the informative post. I’m in stage 1 now and your lists for each stage will be helpful. I appreciate your taking the time and thoughtfulness to put this post together.


Jami Gold March 8, 2011 at 7:19 pm

Hi Charles,

You’re quite welcome. Good luck with your edits and thanks for the comment!


Jennifer K Oliver March 11, 2011 at 10:56 am

Thank you so much for sharing this post! It has to be one of the best breakdowns of the revision process I’ve seen, and I’m adding it to my bookmarks for future reference. 🙂


Jami Gold March 11, 2011 at 10:58 am

Hi Jennifer,

I’m so happy you found it helpful. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Maryanne Fantalis April 19, 2011 at 6:04 pm

As a perfectionist, I am right there with you. It took me such a long time to come up with an effective method of revising and editing, and I had many readers and editors who helped me. I have never been able to describe the process this succinctly and completely. Brava! I am going to mark this for future reference! 🙂


Jami Gold April 19, 2011 at 6:23 pm

Hi Maryanne,

Thank you! Happy to help. 🙂


Sharon Morse May 26, 2011 at 12:03 pm

Great advice! A lot of times I catch myself trying to do all the steps at once. Then I get overwhelmed and yell at the computer screen. 😉


Jami Gold May 26, 2011 at 12:07 pm

Hi Sharon,

Even following these steps, I still get overwhelmed. LOL! But having a plan helps. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Ava Jae July 15, 2011 at 8:53 am

Great post! *boomarked*

I’m EXACTLY the same way with my re-reading the chapter before starting to write…I also use the same excuse. But it’s helpful. For me, at least.

I’ll definitely be going over this post as I get my revising/editing done.


Jami Gold July 15, 2011 at 10:15 am

Hi Ava,

Yay! I’m so happy to help. 🙂


Sadie Hart August 22, 2011 at 7:26 am

Great post, Jami! I’m slowly starting to work more structure into how I write and how I revise/edit. The hardest thing to do for me sometimes is just focus on ‘revising.’ I love the editing stage, but for some reason revisions kill. This post definitely gives a nice clear picture of what to focus on. Checklists! They always make things easier for my brain to focus.


Jami Gold August 22, 2011 at 7:31 am

Hi Sadie,

Yes, I love checklists too. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


Morgyn March 15, 2013 at 1:09 pm

Jami, coming in very late, but with a question. How long should a first draft wait for revision? Month, two, three? (How cold does that body need to be?)

Thank you!


Jami Gold March 15, 2013 at 5:19 pm

Hi Morgyn,

Great question! Unfortunately, there’s no one answer that will always apply.

I’ve seen recommendations of a two week minimum, but most say a month is better. However, sometimes deadlines won’t allow that. (Or in my case, since I have a photographic memory, it takes more months than my schedule will ever have. I desperately need my beta readers to tell me what’s broken because it takes me a minimum of 8-10 months to get distance from a story.)

So the answer is however long your schedule allows that will give you the necessary distance from a story to see it with fresh eyes. 🙂 Does that help? Thanks for the comment!


Stacey Zink October 10, 2013 at 9:04 am

I am currently editing a book I finished earlier this year. I am having a very difficult time editing it and now I understand why. 🙂 Thank you so much! I can see where I am very turned around in my process. I am trying to do the polishing before the editing and it is proving to be very overwhelming. Time to take a step back, so I can make progress on this book. Your blog is awesome! Thank you so much.


Jami Gold October 10, 2013 at 10:09 am

Hi Stacey,

LOL! Yes, I started off that way too. 🙂 That’s how I ended up doing–no joke–50 “polishing a turd” passes before actually figuring out what was wrong with the sucker. *head desk*

I’m glad to hear that I might be able to save someone from that horror. 😀 Thanks for the comment and the kind words about my blog!


Teagan Kearney December 13, 2013 at 1:15 pm

A great informative post where you’ve concisely listed all the stages of getting a book ready – shame it can seem to take forever to go through them!


Jami Gold December 13, 2013 at 2:15 pm

Hi Teagan,

*sigh* I understand. The better I get at drafting, the more impatient I am with revising. LOL! I hope this helps. 🙂 Thanks for the comment!


William March 6, 2015 at 7:40 pm

Love this. Thank you. Which reminds me – I once had (have) a problem with thinking I’ve gotten something down on the page when – apparently, upon a closer look – it’s not on the page at all but still in my head. Did I really answer the main story question or dilemma? I think so, but where it it, exactly? Can I point to it, on the page? So the kid in Araby wants to buy a girl a present at the bazaar. Will he make it to the bazaar? Yes. We see him there. Will he buy a present? No. How do we know? He lets the coins fall in his pocket. Sounds ridiculous, but I have to go through and make sure the story I think I’ve written has actually been written. Unless I can point to it, it hasn’t. 🙂


Jami Gold March 6, 2015 at 10:15 pm

Hi William,

That’s a great point about how we should be able to point to something specific on the page to answer each story question. 🙂 Thanks for sharing!


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